We are beginning to see interest rates rise globally in the free market. After BREXIT exposed the crisis in Europe, the rates began to rise in the peripherals. That will move closer toward the core. The Fed will respond only when the capital sees what is unfolding in Europe and shifts to the States. The US will be the last to see rates rise. The Fed has recognized that it needs to raise rates to prevent a pension crisis, but the first step would be to stop paying interest on excess reserves. That would conform to a rate raise.